Overall, Austin remains a hub for innovators and risk-takers. The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation Kauffman Index is a key measurement of entrepreneurship on the national, state and metropolitan levels. Marcus Hiles explains that the index factors three key metrics – the rate of new businesspersons, how many of those who started their companies while unemployed, and startups per capita – to develop an annual gauge. Their data shows that roughly 555 out of every 100,000 adults in the Austin area became entrepreneurs each month during the past five years, on average. The index notes the startup rate at 180 new businesses – less than one year old and employing at least one person besides the owner – per 100,000 residents.